Lesson 1
Last Updated : November, 2022
C++ - Programming Language
This course covers the basics of programming in C++.

C++ Overview

C++ is a general-purpose programming language that is widely used for developing high-performance software, including operating systems, system software, device drivers, and video games. C++ is an extension of the C programming language and provides support for object-oriented programming concepts, such as encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.

C++ is a compiled language, which means that the source code is compiled into machine code that can be executed by the computer. This makes C++ programs fast and efficient, but also requires a compiler to be installed on the developer’s machine.

One of the key features of C++ is its support for templates, which enable generic programming. Templates allow developers to write code that can work with different data types and provide a high level of abstraction and flexibility.

C++ also provides low-level memory manipulation features, such as pointers, which enable developers to directly access memory locations and manage system resources. While this can be powerful, it can also be challenging and requires a deep understanding of memory management.

C++ has a large standard library that provides pre-built code for common tasks, such as file input/output, string manipulation, and data structures. The standard library is designed to be portable and works across different platforms.

C++ is a popular language in academia and is widely used for teaching computer science and programming concepts. There are many resources available for learning C++, including textbooks, online tutorials, and programming courses.

Overall, C++ is a powerful and flexible programming language that provides developers with fine-grained control over system resources and enables them to build fast and efficient software.

How C++ Runs

C++ is a compiled programming language, which means that the code written in C++ must be compiled into machine code (binary code) that can be executed directly by the computer’s processor. The compilation process involves several stages, including:

  • Preprocessing The preprocessor processes the source code and performs tasks such as including header files, macro expansion, and conditional compilation.

  • Compilation The compiler translates the preprocessed source code into assembly language or object code.

  • Assembly The assembler translates the object code into machine code, which consists of a sequence of binary instructions that the processor can execute.

  • Linking The linker combines the object code generated by the compiler with any required libraries to create a complete executable program.

Once the compilation process is complete, the resulting executable file can be run on the target system. When the program is executed, the operating system loads the program into memory and transfers control to the program’s entry point, which is typically the main() function in C++. The program then begins executing instructions one by one, until it reaches the end of the program or encounters an error.

During runtime, C++ programs can interact with the operating system and other programs by making system calls or using libraries provided by the operating system or other third-party libraries. These libraries provide functions for performing common tasks such as file input/output, network communication, and user interface development.

Overall, C++ programs are compiled into machine code that can be executed directly by the processor, giving them high performance and efficiency. However, the compilation process can be more complex than interpreted languages, and requires a compiler and linker to be installed on the developer’s machine.

Choosing an IDE

Choosing an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is an important decision for C++ developers, as the right IDE can improve productivity and make development more efficient. Here are some factors to consider when choosing an IDE for C++ development:


The IDE should have features that are relevant to C++ development, such as syntax highlighting, code completion, debugging, profiling, and refactoring. It should also support version control and collaboration tools, such as Git.


The IDE should be compatible with the operating system and platform that you are working on. Some popular IDEs for C++ development, such as Visual Studio and Xcode, are only available for certain operating systems.

User interface

The IDE should have a user-friendly interface that is easy to navigate and customize. It should also provide a good balance between simplicity and advanced functionality.


The IDE should be responsive and efficient, with fast load times and minimal lag during use.

Cost: Some IDEs are free, while others require a paid license. Consider the cost and whether the features provided by the paid version are necessary for your development needs.

Some popular IDEs for C++ development include:

Visual Studio

A comprehensive IDE developed by Microsoft, available on Windows and macOS.


A free IDE developed by Apple, available only on macOS.


A cross-platform IDE developed by JetBrains, available on Windows, macOS, and Linux.


A free and open-source IDE, available on Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Code Blocks

A free and open-source IDE, available on Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Ultimately, the choice of IDE will depend on your personal preferences and development needs. It is recommended to try out several IDEs before settling on one.